DIOXIDE (CO2) --- Gas produced by fermentation. In still
wines, the gas is released; in sparkling wines, it is captured in
the bottle to create bubbles.
MACERATION --- Method of fermentation for some red wines
using whole grapes rather than crushed ones. The result is suppler,
lighter, more aromatic wines with less acidity than if made traditionally.
--- A glass container, generally of five gallon capacity, used in
fermentation and storage of wines.
--- A wooden container, usually made of oak, used for storing, aging
and sometimes shipping wines.
--- Describes the aroma of some reds (e.g. Cabernets, Rhône blends),
which often resembles that of cedarwood.
--- Although this refers to the practice of putting wines away in
a cavernous, underground hideaway, in contemporary wine practices,
cellaring is merely the act of putting wines away in an evenly-temperatured
(preferably cool), dark, still, and somewhat humid spot for proper
storage and aging. An average temperature of 55 degrees Fahrenheit
is deemed ideal, but any temperature comfortable for a human being
is okay for a living wine. The key to temperature is stability:
there should not be significant fluctuations. Keeping the wine out
of direct and harmful light, and away from unsettling vibrations,
is also essential. Wine must be stored horizontally so the cork
will remain moist and so that fresh air, which causes oxidation,
will be kept out of the bottle. Temperature-controlled storage units
are available in every size and shape; a recalibrated refrigerator
works nicely. Even an out-of-the-way closet functions well.
--- Procedure of adding sugar to the grape juice before fermentation
to increase the alcohol content of wines. Prohibited by law in California
--- Taster's term used to describe a wine with distinctive qualities
relating to geographical origin, grape variety, etc.
--- Describes dense, concentrated red wines resulting from a high
extract of tannin and flavor content.
--- Term for wines that have no off-color, aroma or taste.
--- A vine that is asexually reproduced from cuttings or graftings
to retain the same character of the parent vine. Many clones
can be developed from a single variety, for adaptation to particular
climates or soils.
--- Generally refers to a young wine that is not yet revealing fruit
--- Low temperature process of fermentation using stainless steel,
temperature-controlled tanks to preserve the aroma and character
of the grape.
--- Describes a wine that has an interesting combination of flavors
--- Describes a wine that is rich and full of extract; deep.
--- An odor similar to baked that signals flawed wine.
CORKY --- Describes a wine that has been flawed by taking
on the flavor of the cork. Usually attributed to a cork that is
defective or unclean.
--- The screw's the thing: it should be a reasonably thin coil that
comes to a definite point that can work its way firmly into the
cork. Any number of corkscrews will open a bottle adequately, from
the almost foolproof, Teflon-coated screwpull model, to the levered
butterfly design, whose arms are lowered as the cork rises, to the
trusty waiter's corkscrew with its small knife and single-levered
action, to a screw-less variety with two thin prongs that remove
a cork intact with a pulling-twisting motion.
--- Similar to a hybrid, a cross is the result of cross-pollination
between vines of the same species.
GALL --- Bacterium that attacks the vine at points of
trunk injury, preventing nutrients from passing and causing the
vine to die.
--- Harvest; the crushing of the grapes.
--- Stalk cut from the vine used in reproduction.
--- A blend of wines, usually sparkling ones. Most commonly used
in North America to identify a specific lot of wine. From the French
cuve, the tank in which wines are fermented.